From The 12th International Fiqh Conference via the Muslims of Norwich Community Website
Category Archives: Jihad
” Clearly, Shah Wali Allah’s sojourn in the Hijaz made a tremendous impact upon his thinking helping him to crystallize and synthesize his intellectual, social, and political concepts into a well-defined ideology and a programme of action. Not only was Shah Wali Allah himself aware of the great transformation that had taken place in his thinking, but his close associates also seem to have noticed it. His son, Shah Abd al-Azziz, for instance, heard about it from his father’s close associates. Fuyud al-Haramayn, which is a sort of spiritual autobiography, written in the peculiar mystic language of anecdotes and visions, bespeaks of this transformation. A comparative study of this work and al-Ghazali’s al Munqidh min al-Dalal makes a fascinating reading. Shah Wali Allah emerged from his spiritual experience to head a sacred mission, while al-Ghazali contented himself primarily with his personal satisfaction. Shah Wali Allah’s role tended to be prophetic, while al-Ghazali’s tended to be largely mystic and saintly(49).”
(49) See Muhammad Iqbal, The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam (1962), 124 : ‘ “Muhammad of Arabia ascended the highest Heaven and returned. I swear by God that if I had reached that point, I should never have returned”. These are the words of a great Muslim saint, Abdul Quddus of Gangoh. In the whole range of sufi literature it will be probably difficult to find words which, in a single sentence, disclose such an acute perception of the psychological difference between the prophetic and the mystic types of consciousness. The mystic does not wish to return from the return of ‘unitary experience’; and, even when he does return, as he must, his return does not mean much for mankind at large. The prophet’s return is creative. He returns to insert himself into the sweep of time, with a view to control the forces of history, and thereby to create a fresh world of ideals. For the mystic the repose of the ‘unitary experience’ is something final; for the prophet, it is the awakening, within him, of world-shaking psychological forces, calculated to completely transform the human world. The desire to see his religious experience transformed into a living world-force is supreme in the Prophet.’
[Islamic Renaissance in South Asia 1707-1867: The Role of Shah Wali Allah and His Successors, Mahmood Ahmad Ghazi, Adam Publishers, p86-87]
The Campaign of 1857 and English Terror
Two fronts were opened against the British in 1857 – one to the north of Amritsar commanded by Hadrat Jafar Than-Siri (ra), and the second just to the south commanded by Haji ImdadUllah Muhajir Makki (ra). Together with Hadrat ImdadUllah (ra) stood noted scholars and warriors of the time such as Hadrat Rashid Ahmed Gangohi (ra), Hadrat Qasim Nanotwi (ra), and Hafiz Damin Shaheed (ra).
The Muslims suffered a crushing defeat in the War of 1857, and scores of noted scholars including Hadrat Hafiz Damin Shaheed (ra) met with martyrdom. The British then decided to tighten their rope and began a horrendous ‘Reign of Terror’ to crush any resistance in the subcontinent.
Over a thousand religious schools (madaaris) were burnt to the ground, and the rest shut down automatically as finances throughout the country were seized. Hadrat Shah WaliUllah Muhaddith Dehlvi (ra)’s Madrasa Rahimia was leveled by a bulldozer. In the following year, over a thousand Muslim scholars were hanged and their bodies were left hanging throughout the country to instill terror in the populace. Still more scholars were chained to cannons and ripped apart as the cannons were fired to salute the British victory.
Despite this mass slaughter to crush all resistance, the British were still anxious to find a solution to these rebellions. They launched a three year survey headed by William Moore to determine a way to permanently keep this resistance from [resurfacing]. After three years Moore submitted a proposal to the Viceroy that Britain would need to implement three measures to free itself from these frequent uprisings.
Moore’s first suggestion was that the Muslims’ strong link to the Holy Quran needs to be severed; his second suggestion was that the British would have to find a means to root out the intense passion for Jihad from the hearts of Muslims. The third and last thing he stated was that the British had to sever any ties that the common Muslims had with their scholars, and thus their knowledge base. Moore said that Britain would have total control only when these three measures were implemented and seen through to their completion.
The Viceroy of Britain issued orders to act on Moore’s recommendations. More than four hundred thousand copies of the Holy Quran were burned over a three-year period from 1861 to 1864. The second step in this diabolical plan was to kill the passion of Jihad amongst the Muslims, and for this the British recruited various false scholars and hypocrites who issued fake and unlawful rulings that Jihad against the British was prohibited (haraam). This served to confuse and divide the Muslims and played right into the foreigners’ plans.
Trials and Tribulations of the Scholars
The culmination of this effort to completely subjugate the Muslims was to kill their scholars, which the British carried out mercilessly in the years 1864 to 1867. [Acting as upholders of the law], the British rulers in India staged mock trials in which scholars were falsely accused of killing Englishmen, and handed down death sentences within an hour of the trial. Fourteen thousand scholars were martyred in this three-year period. This inquisition was so widespread that the British historian Thompson writes that the noble bodies of the Muslim scholars were hanging from every tree on the road between Lahore and Peshawar.
Thompson further writes in his autobiography that he was visiting Delhi when he stopped at one of the tents along the way set up as rest stops for travelers. He noticed a foul stench coming from behind his tent, so he stepped out to investigate. He describes a scene in which forty scholars were stripped and thrown onto beds of coals, being taunted by British soldiers to admit their part in the War of 1857. The flesh and fat was melting and oozing out of their charred bodies and actually extinguishing the ambers. Thompson says that the bodies of these forty scholars stiffened and turned cold in front of him, only to be replaced by forty more who were thrust onto the burning coals.
Still other scholars were imprisoned and tortured in jail, not allowed food or rest in order to break them mentally. Maulana Jafar Than-Siri (ra) writes in his biography that he was in the Khot Laqpat jail when the order came to transport them to Multan. They were put into large cages that had metallic spikes fixed into them to maximize suffering, and in this way they reached Multan in three months. They would be denied food for days at a time to intensify their anguish, and be forced to relieve themselves in their cages. The spikes would stab and wound them at every turn, and thus also rob them of any sleep. Needless to say many died on the way because of these horrific conditions.
The surviving few who reached the Multan jail were further subjected to more torture, until it was ordered that all the scholars remaining in Multan be hanged. Hearing this, the scholars were very pleased and relieved, for they would be free of this life and attain martyrdom. Therefore, regardless of their past suffering, their faces were illuminated on the day their death sentences were to be carried out, something which surprised their captors. When asked why they appeared so peaceful and content on such a day that they were to be hanged, one of them said that they would at last be free and Allah (SWT) would give them the status of martyrdom. The British warden hence conferred with his officers and decided that the scholars should not be given the satisfaction of death, so they were instead sentenced to a further fourteen year sentence during which the British would intensify their torture.
Tears of Innocence
Maulana Than-Siri (ra) further says that his wife and child were brought before him as he and the rest of the scholars were being led away. Seeing him in shackles they both began crying, while his eight year old son said, “When are you coming back to us O Father, and why have these people tied you up like this?” To this Maulana Than-Siri (ra) had no reply, but said to his wife and child, “Be strong, and perhaps I will see you again in this life. If I do not then we will surely meet at the stream of Kauthar [a river in Jannah].”
Extracted from The Scholars of Deoband by Hazrat Shaykh Zulfiqar Ahmad (db), Tasawwuf.org
باب ما جاء في صفة سيف رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم
99– (1) حدثنا محمد بن بشار أخبرنا وهب بن جرير أخبرنا أبي قتادة عن أنس قال : كانت قبيعة سيف رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم من فضة
100– (2) حدثنا محمد بن بشار أخبرنا معاذ بن هشام حدثني أبي عن قتادة عن سعيد بن أبي الحسن قال : كانت قبيعة سيف رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم من فضة
101– (3) حدثنا أبو جعفر محمد بن صدران البصري أخبرنا طالب بن حجير عن هود و هو ابن عبد الله بن سعيد [ أي العبدي ] عن جده العصري قال : دخل رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم مكة يوم الفتح و على سيفه ذهب و فضة قال طالب : فسألته عن الفضة ؟ فقال : كانت في قبيعة السيف فضة
102– (4) حدثنا محمد بن شجاح البغدادي أخبرنا أبو عبيدة الحداد عن عثمان بن سعد عن ابن سيرين قال صنعت سيفي على سيف سمرة بن جندب و زعم سمرة أنه صنع سيفه على سيف رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم و كان حنفيا
حدثنا عقبة بن مكرم البصري قال حدثنا محمد بن بكر عن عثمان بن سعد بهذا الإسناد نحوه
The Ulama have stated that the reason for writing this chapter after the chapter of the ring is because of a special system, which also points towards a governmental rule. First letters inviting the kings to Islam are to be sent. If they accept Islam they will benefit in this world and the hereafter, otherwise they should decide between themselves and the sword. The Prophet of Allah sallallahu alaihe wasallam had several swords, each of which had a special name. For example the first sword was named ‘Ma-thur’ which was inherited from his father. The name of another sword was ‘Qadib’, one was ‘Qil-ee’, one was ‘Tabaar’ and one was ‘Dhulfiqaar’ etc. Imam Tirmizi has quoted four ahaadith in this chapter.
(99) Hadith 1
Hazrat Anas radiyallahu anhu reports that the handle of the sword of the Prophet of Allah sallallahu alaihe wasallam was made of silver.
Allamah Bayjuri writes, about the sword named ‘Dhulfiqaar’, “At the time of conquering Makkah, the Prophet of Allah sallallahu alaihe wasallam had this sword.”
(100) Hadith 2
Hazrat Saeed bin Abil Hasan Basri radiyallahu anhu has related the same hadith that the handle grip of the sword of the Prophet of Allah sallallahu alaihe wasallam was made of silver.
(101) Hadith 3
Hazrat Mazeedah bin Malik, the (maternal) grandfather of Hud says that when the Prophet of Allah sallallahu alaihe wasallam entered Makkah on the day it was conquered, his sword had gold and silver on it.
Talib who is one of the narrators of this hadith says that he asked the ustaadh, “On which part of the sword was the silver?”
He replied, “The cap of the grip handle was made of silver.”
According to the majority of the Ulama it is not permissible to use gold on a sword. This hadith cannot be used as proof, as it has been declared to be weak. Allamah Turpishti says, “This hadith cannot be used as an argument because its sanad (chain of narrators) cannot be relied upon. The use of silver for the handle etc. is permissible according to the previous hadith.”
It is said that since it is not permissible to use gold, the narrator did not care to investigate which portion of the sword was made of gold. He only investigated those portions that were made of silver.
(102) Hadith 4
Ibn Seereen says, “I made my sword like the sword of Samurah bin Jundub radiyallahu anhu. He said that he had his sword made in the same manner as the one the Prophet of Allah sallallahu alaihe wasallam had. The sword was the type used by the tribe of Banu Hanifah.”
Banu Hanifah was a tribe in Arabia who were famous for manufacturing good quality swords. These people, one after another, in imitating the Prophet of Allah sallallahu alaihe wasallam, made a replica of his sword.
(From the commentary on Imam Abi `Esa Muhammad ibn Sorah at-Tirmidhi’s, Shama’il Tirmidhi (ash-Shama’il al-Muhammadiyyah sallaLlahu `alayhi wa sallam, khasa’is nabawiy Sharh Shama’il Tirmidhi) by Shaykh al-Hadith Maulana Muhammad Zakariyya Kandhelawi.)
Bukhari and Tirmidhi narrate on the authority of Kharijah ibn Zayd ibn Thabit from his father Zayd ibn Thabit, may Allah be pleased with him, who said: “RasuluLlah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, ordered me to learn some words for him from the language of the Jews. He [RasuluLlah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace] said to me: ‘I take an oath by Allah that I do not trust the Jews with my letter.’ Before half a month could pass, I learnt the [Suryani] language. After I learnt it, if he had to write a letter to the Jews, I used to write it for him. And if they wrote to him, I used to read their letter to him.”
Tirmidhi says that this is a good and authentic Hadith. Al-A`mash also narrated it on the authority of Thabit ibn `Ubayd from Zayd ibn Thabit, may Allah be pleased with him, saying: “RasuluLlah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, ordered me to learn the Suryani language.”
Utilizing foreign languages in the field of teaching, inviting and propagation when there is a need to do so is established from the Sunnah of RasuluLlah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.
Today, languages are key to universal sciences which have become necessary because of us neighbouring the non-Arabs and Europeans. Languages are a key to progress between nations. They have become a key to mutual cooperation which has become necessary in life and so that a person’s right will be guaranteed when he mixes with other nations.
Shaykh Safiyyuddin al-Hilli who knew several languages says in a poem:
“The more languages a person knows, the more he is able to benefit. These languages come to his assistance at the time of calamities. Hasten, then, in learning new languages. For every language, in essence, is another human.”
(Shaykh `Abd al-Fattah Abu Ghuddah, al-Rasul al-Mu`allim, translated by Mahomed Mahomedy and published by Zam Zam Publishers, as Prophet Muhammad – The Teacher and his teaching methodologies, p.159)
The more languages you know the more useful you are.
Languages help in relieving misfortune.
Be keen on learning other languages.
Each language you know is a human being.
An Arab poet
Al-Hasan said about amirs, “They take charge of five of our affairs: the Jumu’ah and the congregational prayer [jama’ah], the ‘Id, the frontiers, and the hadd punishments. By Allah! the deen will only be straight and effective by them, even if they are tyrannical and wrongdoing. By Allah! that which Allah puts right by means of them is more than that which they corrupt, although, by Allah! obedience to them is tough, but separating oneself from them is kufr.”
Al-Khalal narrated in the “Kitab al-Imarah –Book of Amirate” from the hadith of Abu Umamah that he said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, commanded his companions when they had prayed ‘Isha’, ‘Assemble, because I have need of you.’ When they finished the morning prayer, he asked, ‘Have you assembled as I told you?’ They answered, ‘Yes.’ He said three times, ‘Worship Allah and do not associate anything with Him! Have you grasped this?’ We answered, ‘Yes.’ He said three times, ‘Establish the prayer and produce the zakah! Have you grasped this?’ We answered, ‘Yes.’ He said three times, ‘Hear and obey!’ He said three times, ‘Have you grasped this?’” He said, “We had thought that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was going to give a long discourse, but then [we saw] that he had collected together the entire affair for us.”
(Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali, Jami’ al-’ulum wa’l-hikam translated by Abdassamad Clarke and published by Turath Publishing Ltd., as The Compendium (of knowledge and wisdom). In commentary of hadith no.28, p.707)
From: Abdassamad Clarke