عن أبي هريرة قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم أيها الناس إن الله طيب لا يقبل إلا طيبا وإن الله أمر المؤمنين بما أمر به المرسلين فقال يا أيها الرسل كلوا من الطيبات واعملوا صالحا إني بما تعملون عليم وقال يا أيها الذين آمنوا كلوا من طيبات ما رزقناكم ثم ذكر الرجل يطيل السفر أشعث أغبر يمد يديه إلى السماء يا رب يا رب ومطعمه حرام ومشربه حرام وملبسه حرام وغذي بالحرام فأنى يستجاب لذلك
Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘Allah, exalted is He, is pure and only accepts that which is pure. Allah orders the believers with that with which he ordered the Messengers, and He says, exalted is He:
يَـٰٓأَيُّہَا ٱلرُّسُلُ كُلُواْ مِنَ ٱلطَّيِّبَـٰتِ وَٱعۡمَلُواْ صَـٰلِحًاۖ
“Messengers, eat of the good things (tayyibat) and act rightly” Surah al-Mu’minun: 51. and He says, exalted is He:
يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ ڪُلُواْ مِن طَيِّبَـٰتِ مَا رَزَقۡنَـٰكُمۡ
“You who have iman! eat of the good things (tayyibat) We have provided for you.'” Surah al-Baqarah: 172. Then he mentioned a disheveled dusty man lengthening his journey and stretching out his hands to the sky, [saying], ‘Lord, Lord!’ and his food is haram, his drink haram, and his clothing haram, and he has been fed on the haram, so how can that be answered?” Muslim narrated it (1012).
All of the mu’min [believer] is pure, his heart, his tongue and his body because of the iman that resides in his heart, the remembrance [of Allah] that manifests on his tongue and the right actions on his limbs, which are [all] the fruit of iman and which are comprised under the term [iman]. Allah accepts all these pure things.
One of the most important things by which the mu’min obtains pure actions is pure food which is halal, for by that his action becomes pure.
In this hadith there is an indication that an action is only acceptable and is only pure through eating pure food which is halal, and that by eating haram food corrupts action and prevents its acceptance, for he said after the affirmative statement, “…and He only accepts that which is pure” [the statement that] “Allah orders the mu’minun with which he ordered the Messengers, and He says, exalted is He, ‘Messengers, eat of the good things and act rightly,’ and He says, exalted is He, ‘You who have iman! eat of the good things We have provided for you.'”
What is meant by this that the Messengers and their communities are commanded to eat of the pure things which are halal, and [they are commanded] to do right action, and that as long as the food is halal, then the action of acceptable. However, when the food is not halal, how can the action be acceptable?
Then what he mentioned after that about the supplication and [his saying] “how can it be acceptable along with the haram?” is an example of the unlikelihood that actions can be acceptable while nourished on haram food. At-Tabarani narrated with a chain of transmission on which there are some views, from Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, that he said. “This ayah was recited in the presence of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace:
يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلنَّاسُ كُلُواْ مِمَّا فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ حَلَـٰلاً۬ طَيِّبً۬ا
‘Mankind! eat what is good (tayyib) and lawful on the earth.’ Surah al-Baqarah: 168. Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas stood up and said, ‘Messenger of Allah, ask Allah to make me one whose supplication is answered.’ The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘Sa`d, make your food pure and your supplication will be answered. By the One in whose hand is the self of Muhammad, the slave will cast a haram morsel in his belly and because of it Allah will not accept his action for forty days, and any slave whose flesh grows upon usury then the Fire is more appropriate for it.”
(Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali, Jami’ al-’ulum wa’l-hikam translated by Abdassamad Clarke and published by Turath Publishing Ltd., as The Compendium (of knowledge and wisdom). In commentary of hadith no.10, p.155 & p.157-158)