Imaam Hasan bin ‘Ali Radiyallahu ‘Anhu reports that I asked my (maternal) uncle Hind bin Abi Haalab, who usually described particulars and conditions of Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam. I was longing to hear something about it. On my asking, he described the mubaarak features of Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam. He said: ‘Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam had great qualities and attributes in him, others also held him in high esteem. His face glittered like the full moon’. He then described the complete features of Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam (as has been mentioned in the first chapter under hadith number seven).
Imaam Hasan Radiyallahu ‘Anhu says. ‘I did not mention this hadith (due to some reason) to Husayn (Radiyallahu ‘Anhu) for some time. Then I once narrated it to him whereupon I found that he had heard it before me. He had asked him (our uncle) already what I had asked. I also found that he had asked our father (‘Ali Radiyallahu ‘Anhu) about Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi ‘Wasallam entering and coming out of the house. He did not leave out anything about the ways and manners of Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam.
Imaam Husayn Radiyallahu ‘Anhu said: ‘I asked my father regarding the manner in which Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam entered the house?’ He replied: ‘When Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam entered the house he distributed his time into three portions; He spent a portion for Allah. (In devotion, performing salaah etc.); A portion towards his family (fulfilling their duties. i.e. laughing, speaking, enquiring about their welfare etc.); and a portion for himself (resting etc.). He distributed his personal portion in two, one for himself and one for the people, in such a manner that the near one’s among the Sahaabah Radiyallahu ‘Anhum came to visit him. Through these Sahaabah Radiyallahu ‘Anhum he conveyed messages to the people. He did not conceal anything from them. From the portion of the unimah he adopted this method, that he gave preference to the Ahlul-Fadl (i.e. people of ‘ilm and ‘amal). He distributed this time according to their religious fadl. From among those who came, some had one requirement, some had two requirements, and some had many requirements. Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam fulfilled all their requirements. He busied them in things that benefited them and the entire ummah. When they questioned Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam on religious matters, he replied to them in a manner that benefited them. He used to say: ‘Those that are present, should inform those that are not present regarding these beneficial and necessary matters’. He also used to say: ‘Those people who for some reason (purdah, distance, shyness or awe) cannot put forward their requirements, you should inform me about their requirements, because, that person who informs a king of the need of another, who is unable to put forward that need, Allah Ta’aala will keep that person stead fast on the day of qiyaamah’.
Only important and beneficial matters were discussed in his gathering. He happily listened to these matters from the Sahaabah Radiyallahu ‘Anhum. Besides this there was no wasteful or non-beneficial talks in his assemblies. The Sahaabah Radiyallahu ‘Anhum came to the assemblies of Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam for their religious needs, they did not depart before tasting something (by tasting, may be meant the acquiring of religious knowledge. It could mean ‘Hissi’ tasting too. Whatever Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam possessed, he offered it in humbleness. Whenever close friends gather, whatever is available is presented to them). The Sahaabah Radiyallahu ‘Anhum returned from his assemblies as torch bearers of hidayah and goodness. (They spread. these teachings amongst others).
Imaam Husayn Radiyallahu ‘Anhu says: ‘I asked (my father) regarding the coming out of Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam from the house’. He replied: ‘Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam controlled his tongue and only spoke that which was necessary. He did not waste his time in useless conversations.
He made those who came to visit him feel at home he did not make them feel scared or ill at ease. (i.e. When advising them, he did not scold them in a manner that they become scared, or tell them such things that would keep them away from the deen). He respected and honoured the respected ones of every nation. He also chose a leader for them. He warned the people of Allah’s punishrnent (or he emphasised that the people be cautious*).
He also protected himself from troubling or harming people. Besides being cautious and commanding others to be cautious, he never lacked in courtesy towards others. He was concerned for the affairs of his friends, made himself aware about the relationships between them and rectified their faults. He praised good deeds and encouraged them. He explained the harmful effects of bad things and removed and stopped these. He followed the middle path in all matters. (He did not at times say this and at other times that). He did not neglect the guiding of people, it is possible that they became unmindful of their religious duties, or exceeded in a matter resulting in them becoming disheartened. For everything there was a special arrangement .He did not fall back in the truth, nor did he exceed the limits in this.
Those who attended his gatherings were the best of people. The best person in the eyes of Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam was the one who wished everybody well. The one with the highest status in the eyes of Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam was that person who considered, comforted and helped the creation the most’.
Sayyidina Imaam Husayn Radiyallahu ‘Anhu says: ‘I then enquired from him regarding the assemblies of Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu Wasallam’. He replied: ‘He began and ended all his sitting with the dhikr of Allah. When he went to a place, he sat where he found a place, and also instructed the people to do so. They should not leap over peoples heads and go ahead. It is a different matter, that where Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam sat, that place became the focal point of the gathering. Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam fulfilled the rights of every person present. That means, whatever right was due in talking and showing happiness, was fulfilled by him, so much so, that every person present would think that Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam is honouring me the most. The person that came to sit by Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam or came to him for some purpose, Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam would remain seated till that person began to stand up. Whenever one asked him for something, he kindly fulfilled that request, and did not refuse it, (if he did not possess the thing) he would give a soft and humble answer.
His cheerfulness and pleasant manner were for everybody. He was like a father to them. The whole creation was equal before him as far as rights were concerned. His gatherings were the gatherings of knowledge, modesty, patience and honesty. (i.e. These four things were attained there or are a description of his gatherings). Voices were not raised therein, nor was anyone degraded or disgraced. If anyone committed a fault, it was not made known publicly. All were regarded as equals amongst themselves. (A person was not regarded according to his lineage or genealogy). The virtues of one over the other was according to the taqwa (piety) possessed. The small ones were loved. The needy were given preference. Strangers and travellers were cared for’. [Shamaa-il Tirmidhi]
In brief, in every matter his noble manners reached their pinnacle and even exceeded that, and why should it not be so when his divine mission was to fulfil and complete noble manners? Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam has said: ‘I have been sent so that I may fulfil and complete the best of manners’. Even though being granted this, he always made this du’aa: ‘O Allah, You have created me excellently. In the same manner make my character excellent’. Allah Ta’aala has mentioned the greatness of his noble character in the Qur-aan, and has also emphasised it in many ways.
Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam said: ‘Allah Ta’aala likes those with gentle temperaments, and in reward for gentleness He grants something which He does not grant for other things’. In another hadith it has been stated: ‘The person that is deprived of gentleness is deprived of great blessings’. It is stated in a hadith: ‘The best amongst you is the one who has the best character’. In one hadith it has been stated: ‘The most beloved amongst you by me is the one who possesses noble character’. A Sahaabi inquired from Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam ‘What is the best thing granted to man? Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam replied: ‘Good character’. In one hadith it has been stated: ‘On the day of qiyyaamah the weightiest thing on the scale of deeds will be good character’. It has been stated in a hadith: ‘A good-mannered person can through his character, reach the status of those pious people who stay awake at night, and fast during the day’. Sayyidina Mu’aadh Radiyallahu ‘Anhu says that when I was sent to Yaman (Yeman), while mounting conveyance, when I put my leg in the stirrup, Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam gave me this final advice: ‘Treat the people with courtesy’. Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam has said the ones that possess the most complete imaan among the Mu’mins are those whose characters are the best. In many other other ahaadith too it has been stressed that one should have good character. The above mentioned ahaadith are an example of these.
* This word ‘Wa yah-dharun naas’ has been translated in many ways. According to this humble servant this translation is the most appropriate. It is suitable and corresponds with the other sentence too. The result is this that Sayyidina Rasulullah sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam was cautious himself and educated others too to be cautious. The example of which is that it is, not permissible for one to have bad thoughts or doubts regarding another person without any valid reason, but it is better for one to guard ones self and be cautious without having bad thoughts or doubts regarding the next person. Many ahaadith are mentioned wherein one has been advised to be cautious and steadfast. An incident in the Abu Daawud that once Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam intended sending some articles to Makkah Mukaramah for distribution. He appointed a Sahaabi by the name of Sayyidina Ibnul Faghwaa Radiyallahu ‘Anhu to take these articies, and said to him: ‘Seek a companion to accompany you. While he was looking for a companion a person by the name of ‘Amr came to him and said: ‘I have heard that you are looking for a companion to accompany you to Makkah. I will go with you’. Sayyidina Ibnul Faghwaa Radiyallahu ‘Anhu came to Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam and said to him that he had found a companion. Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam asked: ‘Who is he? He described the person. Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam said: ‘When you near the settlement of his tribe be cautious, because there is a saying: Be cautious of your Bakri (name of tribe) brother”. Sayyidina Ibnul Fadhwaal Radiyallahu ‘Anhu says we both set out on our journey. When we neared the settlement of my companion’s tribe, he began to say. “Let me go and meet this people. You can wait for me” I Said: ”Surley there is no harm” After he left I remembered what Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam has said to me. I quickly readied my camel and moved off. After a little while I saw him coming with a few people but because of my cautiouness I quickly went away. In this incident there are many types of cautiousness. Besides this, in many ahaadith Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam informed the ‘ummah to be careful and cautious. Therefore this translation is most suitable.